GLOSSARY

Anotador =   Score keeper: The person who keeps a register of the accumulated scores. Besides keeping the score this person has the obligation to sing (to point out the possibilities for each player). It is characteristic for the score keeper to be one of the players, as there is a rule that says: "a bad score keeper looses." This rule exists to punish the dishonesty of some score keepers.

Asu-sena = Number one is known as "AS" or ace, and six as "sena." In this way a play that has an ace and a six takes an altered name for "azucena" (lily).

Cachito = This word has three meanings within the context of a game of dice. Sometimes it is used by a player to indicate the length of time. For example, to say "I will return in a moment," one would say "I will return in a cachito." A second meaning is for a game of dice in general, so instead of saying "let's play Alalay" or "let's play Generala" one would say "let's play cacho." The third meaning is the name given to the cup or cubilete used to shake the dice before throwing them.

Cueca = Bolivian traditional dance, it represents the courting between a man and a woman. The dance uses a harmonious foot work and a sensuous movement of a handkerchief with one hand.

Panza Dorada - Golden Belly = To understand this name it is necessary to understand the fact that players call belly the central vertical line of the score. Four types of plays are written in this central space (the ones of highest value): straight, full, poker, and the big one. A play is called golden when it is achieved with a single throw of the dice. When the belly is covered with golden plays, it becomes a golden belly. The only play that needs not to be golden is the big one, but this one is necessary in order to have a golden belly. Some players believe a game is won with two big ones, but generally only one is necessary. It is important to understand that it is not necessary to fill the entire score square in order to win the game; in other words, if the golden belly is filled, one wins even if there are blank spaces in the score square.

Pokar - poker = When four of the five dice have the same value. It is worth 40 points but it is obtained in single hand throw it is worth 45 points.

The big one = When all five dice have the same value. It is worth 50 points but it is obtained in single hand throw the game is won and so it is called the sleepy one.

Single hand throw = Also known as "yi mao" (deformation for "from a hand") or "servida"(served). It is applied to plays that lead to fill out the belly in a single throw of the dice.

Cubilete - Goblet = The container or cup used to hold and shake the dice before throwing them on the table. This is also known as cacho. It is generally made out of hardened leather and it is covered with cloth inside.

Chuflay = Bolivian alcoholic beverage made with singani (alcohol made from grapes, different than wine), a sliver of lemon and ginger ale or seven up.

Generala = A game of dice where each player throws the dice three times. It is also played with five dice. It used to be popular until some 15 years ago, and has been slowly replaced by Alalay. Generala is very similar in many aspects to Alalay.

Alalay = A game of dice, typical of Bolivia. It probably derives from Generala but it has displaced the latter. It is played with five dice and there are four ways to win:

1. By the total of points added at the end of the game.
2. By Alalay, which is by filling up the left and right columns of the
score square with a set of good plays (poker, tontos, etc). Besides,
in the belly there must be at least a big one (some players
prefer two).

3. By golden belly. That is by filling up the belly with a set of plays
achieved by a single hand throw. It must contain a big one (some
players prefer two).

4. By a sleepy one. That is to get the same value on all five dice in a
single hand throw. This play wins the game regardless of the scores
anyone may have. When several consecutive games are played, some
players will count a sleepy one as two games won.

Another characteristic of this game is to allow the players to flip the dice over. Two dice per turn are allowed to be flipped over, one being obligatory and the other optional. This increases the possibilities of success as well as making the game faster.

Salud! Salutero! = Cheers! This is an invitation to clash the glasses and then drink an alcoholic beverage. In Spanish this invitation is an invocation for good health. A deformation of the invocation is the word "Salutero" as it seems to be a contraction of the word "salud" (health) and  "útero" (uterus). This is typical humorous expression in Bolivia.

As, tonto, tren, cuadra, quina, sena = These are the names given to the six possible values on a die. The word "as" is the universal term for "one" used in most scoring games. The other words are deformations from the numerical values with a humorous connotation. This story uses but a sample of the variety of names given to the scores. Here is a more complete list:
1 = as (ace), bala (bullet), valiente (valiant), ases (aces)
2 = tonto (fool)
3 = tren (train)
4 = cuadra (block)
5 = quina
6 = sena, negra (black)

4x4, 4x6 = A poker that fills either left or right side of the score square has a particular name:
4x6 = 24, 24 to the sena, or 24 black ones
4x5 = 20, 20 to the quina
4x4 = 16, 16 to the cuadra, 16 of July (La Paz' anniversary)
4x3 = 12, 12 to the tren (train)
4x3 = 8, 8 to the tonto, or ochoa
4x1 = 4, 4 to the balas (bullets), 4 valiant ones, 4 aces, 4 bullets

Rasmillado = A Bolivian expression used within and outside the game. It means a skin scratch, a minor injury that may have been accompanied by slight bleeding and bruising.

Chango, changuito = Name given in Bolivia to adolescents. Adolescents use it to refer to a special person, to the current love. It may be used by adults in a negative way to indicate lack of maturity. It can also be used as a term of endearment or even respect for someone regardless of the age. For example, speaking of one's boss one may say "what a good chango he is."

Bonosol = In 1997, the president Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada used part of the profits from the "Capitalization" (public corporations passed to private ownership) to give a yearly bonus of $200 to each Bolivian residing in the country and of at least 65 years of age. This bonus is by law, and it is supposedly for life for all senior citizens. The name given to this was BONUS of SOLIDARITY, and it is better known as BONOSOL. Bolivian humor shows up by sending all those who are in their 50's to collect their Bonosol.

Trago - drink = Obviously it is just a sip, but in Bolivia it means also a whole container (glass, pitcher, bottle, etc.) full of some alcoholic beverage.

Mozo - waiter = The word mozo is also used to refer to young people, but in Bolivia it more often means a waiter, bartender, someone who tends to customers in a restaurant or bar.

Full, fulichi, fulano, ful = A play where three dice have the same value and the other two also have the same value, but different from the first three.

Escalera, escala - straight = A play where all five dice have values that ascend and wrap around: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 3, 4, 5, 6, 1. Other sequences are no accepted.

Barato - cheap = A play that is achieved with more than one throw of the dice.

Bag = Besides being a container, in Bolivia this word is used when one takes advantage of someone else or something, when one gets his or her way. It generally is used in a light way, such as "bag that soccer team," meaning that the other team won with a big score.

Pelón = In Spanish it means "long haired." In some parts of Latin America it (such as Mexico) it takes the opposite meaning, that is "bald."

Cuari-cua-cua = A term that describes a pleasant sound, which represents the poker of cuadras, in other words when a four is rolled. The term implies some joy in its use.

Saisdagost = A term with subliminal connotations that can as well mean "seis de agosto" (August 6, Bolivia's independence day), or "seis da gusto" (six gives pleasure. It could also refer to "saice da gusto" (saice gives pleasure, meaning the typical dish from Tarija known as saice). In the game it is used when a tonto or three "two's" are rolled.

Throw = The Spanish word "tirar" has a double meaning: "to throw" is the standard accepted one, "to make love" is a slang used widely in Latin America.

Change = Besides meaning to convert something, it also refers to residual money returned during a purchase or similar transaction.

Boliviano = Name given to the citizens of Bolivia. Also, the name of the national currency, which as of August 4, 1997, equals to 5.25 for a U.S. Dollar.

Single = A term used for bills of low denomination.

Ochoa = A Spanish surname. In the game it is used to refer to four "two's."

Sleepy = A term used in the game to refer to a throw of all five dice resulting with the same value. This play wins the game.

Devils of Oruro = A Bolivian dance typical of carnival, and most precisely from the city of Oruro. It portrays devils dancing near a mine in order to pray to the spirits to protect the miners and keep them from having accidents inside the mine. The dancers wear sparkling custumes with great masks depicting the devil; the dance itself is well choreographed and includes jumping.

Socavon = The tunnel that provides entrance to a mine.

Rosca = The thread on a screw, bolt, or the inside of a nut. It also refers to a group of people who secretely work for the group and attempt to be an obstacle to those who are not in the group.